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Unlike the United States, in Canada, arbitration of disputes under a collective bargaining agreement is not voluntary but, rather, is required by law. Concomitantly, strikes and lockouts during the term of an agreement are banned by law. The author poses the theory that that Canadian requirement of arbitration, under terms varying in different provinces, has …

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Comparison of American and Canadian grievance resolution systems. Major differences include less centralized authority in Canada (other than in interprovincial and international business); greater legal restrictions on strikes and lockouts during the contract term; greater responsibility for establishing dispute resolution mechanisms during the contract term; common requirement for final and binding settlement of “disputes arising,” …

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