A description of the initial application of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as enforced by the Department of Labor and the Internal Revenue Service. ERISA was created to provide employees with “insurance” against the termination of pension and welfare plans. The arbitration of pension disputes on behalf of individual employees varies with plan types. Those covered by or simply referenced by collective bargaining agreements are largely subject to arbitration; jointly administered plans likewise generally include arbitration as the final dispute resolution step. The chapter concludes with a detailed review of the ERISA provisions that are of special interest to arbitrators.